Young at At 60: The rise of Indian Film industry

28th December 1895. Grand Café Paris. Name of the film: Solon Indien Ticket price: 1 Frank. First Cinematographic attempt by Lumier Brothers kept the corner stone of today’s multi billion film industry.

Europeans never looked at inventions as mere proliferation of their creativity but as an opportunity to build wealth. Lumier bros had created a simple cinematography machine that can be carried from on place to another by a few people. They decided to send their agent to capture the world market. One of such agent halted in ‘Bombay’ on his way to Australia and Indians got to see the ‘Magic’ of science. However only white skinned people in India that time could see the movie.

By then cinema had become a major entertainment medium world over. 25 December 1910 a visionary entered the Hall of America India Picture Palace, where he saw ‘The Life of Christ’. While leaving he kept the corner stone of Indian Film Industry; deep into his mind. The man was DhundiRaaj Aka DadaSaheb Falke“Dadasahib Falke”. His wife (kaki) was totally shaken. Her name is never taken in the history of Indian Cinema, but had she not given her jewelry to her husband that time may be the Tirupati Balaji wouldn’t have got 9Cr. Necklace from Amitabh in 2006.

Jewelry was not the only thing she gave. Also an empty basket she used to keep Rotis for the kids. Dadasahib imported a 5 pound camera from England. To collect capital for his business, he started a filming a short film. A film that showed growth of a tiny sapling into a grown tree. He too 45 days to film a 200 feet film. 3rd May 1931 ‘Raja Harishchandra’ was shown in Coronation theater Bombay and within two months ‘Alam Ara’ was displayed in Majestic Cinema. These first two attempts were housefull and I hear that the board used then still exists and is with a well known actress.

A scene from Raja Harishchandra

It is said that Indian Film industry played a crucial role in India’ struggle for freedom. Though the movies were censored most of them were mythological or historical. They made people realize that they have an unique identity and culture and they have the right to decide their own destiny.

Actor Pramila became the first Miss India in 1947. Recently I came to know that her true name was Esther Victoria Abraham and she worked behind the scenes in Ardeshir Irani’s masterpiece ‘Mother India’. It was the first Indian film to be screened in Buckingham Palace.

In 1948 entire nation was still bleeding in the wounds of Independence and the never-to-end enimity with Pak was erupted as the First battle India fought. Nehru lost his nerves and asked UN to interrupt. The film industry went into a kind of hibernation but certainly gave a new subject to later come up with excellent stories like Hum Dono.

The year will also be remembered for the rise of a melody called M.S. Subbulakshmi though she was not associated with films then; she was the first singer to get bharatratna. Mahatma Gandhi was her fan.

Indian Cinema realized the hurdles in expressing itself long back in 1948. Not only Indian cinematography act 1949 came into place, but An eminent painter F.N. Sauza had to move to United States because the police here wouldn’t allow him to draw painting of his choice which were perceived as obscene by them. He was never heard of since then at least in India.

1950 started a thing unimaginable at that time. A movie showing a bad cop killing and doing all bad things. The government was shocked at this because like even today it never liked to admit that such a thing can happen and is happening. The movie was ‘Sangram’ and was an instant hit. The movie was later banned by Morarji Desai in the 16th week by terming it as too violent. Ashok Kumar was the Hero in it.

The 50s decade was the one that gave us some unpeccable masterpieces. At the beginning there was Raj Kapoor’s Awara. Nargis’ bathing suit caused a stir and the movie also started the home film industries venture overseas. This movie became hit in Russia. It’s songs were so popular in Russia that they were even played in the local operas.

Indian Film industry took a drastic turn at this time. Till then people use to come to theaters in the amusement to see moving and talking figures on giant screen. But Bimal Roy, Raj Kapoor, Mehboob Khan, Gurudatt, B.R. Chopra, K Asif, Ramesh Saigal, Vijay Anand, V Shantaram changed the equations with their immortal creations that made people see the reflections of their own life on the screen. In parallel Satyajit Ray single handedly created a new Genre which was termed as art films but soon became Gems in the crown of the industry. From 1950 to 1959 saw a radical shift in the technology, though mostly B&W the movies used advanced technology like cinemascope and Light and shade. Even color movies were beginning to come.

In south India film industry and politics was inseparable. Legendary Shivaji Ganeshan starred in Parashakti and attracted attention in a 5 minute courtroom scene. The dialogues were written by K. Karunanidhi the TN chief minister. The year 1952 will be remembered for one more reason. The IFFI was inaugurated in Mumbai.

Do you remember the scene in ‘do bigha zameen’ where balaraj sahni pulls his rickshaw to compete with another rickshaw? Bimal Roy’s neo-realist film won several honors world over and perhaps world started taking us seriously. Balaraj sahni was actor. I cant forget his role in ‘Kabuliwallh’.


National Film awards were instituted in the same 1953 year and the marathi movie ‘Shyamchi Ayee’ won it. It was based on Sane Guruji’s book which is a best seller book even today. It was about the relationship between a mother and son and how he gets influenced by her noble thoughts. Like his other novels this too had a tragic end. Sane guruji himself committed suicide because the world was not as good as he wanted it to be.

India’s first Technicolor film was realesed in the same year ‘Zasi ki Rani’ featuring mehtab ,wife of director Sohrab Modi. 1954 saw the rise of another Rajkumar this time in Karnataka though. John Wayne aka Rajkumar found the stage in Bedara Kanappa. He was later kidnapped by Veerappan.

First Sanskrit movie too appeared somewhere round this time. It was based on life and legend of ‘Adi Shankaracharya’ though I couldn’t found more about this movie. Sanskrit movies are not that rare as I had thought they would. There were quite many since then. The recent one came in 2002 called ‘Mudra Rakshas’.

1955 was arguably the best year since then for film industry. Satyajit Ray’s Apu Trilogy, Pather Panchali came on screen which gave him National Award. The change in a kid who is turning to his adulthood was potrayed in a way that struck everyone. Indian family values, the complexity of the relationship between a growing child and his parents. The way Satyajit Ray presented it kept him much above all his peers. Even today when I get to see Apu Trilogy it is the best cinematic experience I can have. It is said that “every art has an spiritual feeling in it” I felt it when luckly I got to see a part of this movie. Pt. Ravi Shankar recorded music for this movie in an continuous session of 11hrs.

1957 while the nation many new things such as A two wheller called lembretta it also got introduced to some quality cinema. ‘Do Akhein Barah Hath’ was V Shantaram’s masterpiece which I recently found that was a remake of a Germen film. Surprisigly the germen film never got popular but this hindi version became hit in Germen Film Festival. Pather Panchali was declared as best film in San Fransisco. Mother India was the first film to be nominated for Academy awards though it did not win it. $1200 were given to Mehboob Khan and Nargis to attend the Oscars.

Kagaj ke Phul was screened in 1959 and was instant hit due to the technology in it. Besides Gurudatt’s acting was unignorable.

Critics said that Madhubala’s beauty was greater than her acting ability, but this was in part due to unwise choices on her part and on the part of her father, who was her manager. She was the sole support of a large and desperately poor family, and seemed to take on any role she could get, even if her credibility as a serious actress was compromised.

The queen of million hearts all over the nation. Madhubala made peoples heart skip as she sang ‘babuji samazo ishare, horn pukare’ a 1928 Chevrolet, Madhoobala and the three brothers (Anoop, Ashok and Kishore) made ‘Chalti Ka naam Gadi’ a classic.

Somewhere this time Hollywood came up with immortal piece of Art named as ‘Bridge on River Kwai’ (I have the cds for those who r interested)

The stars that were born in the decade of 50 are still the big bosses of the industry. Yash Chopra who rocked the box office in 2007 with movies like dhoom 2 started off in 1959 as director of movie dhool ka phool.

1960 had many movies in it but one of them was so prominent that it outshined all others in the pages of history. With production cost of 1.5 core at that time it took 500 shooting days over a period of 15 years to complete. The movie mirrored the love story of Salim and Anarkali. Mughal-e-Azamm was not only a Mega hit at that time it was released again in 2006 in color. People rushed to theaters number of times to see Madhubala’s smile and Dilip Kumar’s acting (not that Madhubala was a bad actor : ). Luminousness of her was so strong that people went mad after her. I know a 80+ year old man who still has her photograph under his bed. She ruled the hearts of millions like no one. If Indian film industry is to be given a female face, certainly it would be madhubala’s.

1961 a very special day for goa as it got liberated. Now my grandmother in Canacona could go to Karwar and watch the latesr blockbusters. They walked a distance of mere(!) 12 kms to see ‘Shyamchi Ayee’. India made it’s first Cinemascope in the same year, it was named as ‘Pyaar ki Pyaas’. I guess from it’s name that it must have been a total flop.

1963. He was really young then. Dil ka bhanvar kare pukaar……Dev Anand and Nutan moved on the steps of Qutub minar gave a new meaning to romance. Even then the concept of romance was limited to intimacy between actor and the actresses. The love was more displayed through good poetry an eyes rather than skinish coochi-koo that is showed today. It is said that even Dilip Kumar (who paired her in several movies) dint get to see Madhubala’s cleavage. The year also saw the rise and rise and rise of S.D. Burman who had just too many hits to mention here. Tere Gharke Samne established Dev as the chocolate hero. His hairstyle became so very popular that sale of caps reduced because that kind of hairstyle did not allow to wear caps. Dev was criticized to imitate Gregary Pack who was in Goa that time shooting for a Hollywood movie ‘Sea Wolf’. My neighbor still preserves the chair he had once sat on.

In the next year Sunil Dutt came up with a bizarre idea. A movie with just one person in it. In a single room. I din see the movie but remember reading it’s reviews in old issues of ‘Marmik’ a cartoon publication run by Baal Thakaray. Just a cartoonist and an editor at that time.


The nation was shattered due to China war and Nehru’s death. While Lal bahaddur Shastry gave a slogan “Jai Jawan, Jay Kisan”. The film industry on contrary was experiencing a radical shift. Farmers and their carts were suddenly replaced by big houses, high society parties and long cars. Yash Chopra had the keys. He came up with superhits like Waqt. The movie had it all in it. Sharp suites, Silk Sarees, motor boats, fountains and of cource a new hairstyle for gilrs to follows. Sadhana Cut named after its actress.



India had only troubles in store for itself. Indira Gandhi newly sworn PM went to US for help the Albama Newspaper published the headline “New Indian Leader Comes Begging”. Femine of 1966 left India so helpless that foreign aid was the only option but it prevented devaluation of Rupee. The only solution was to open its trade for foreign companies and get a bit liberalized.

But in the same year Reita Faria became first Indian Miss world. Unlike all others she left modeling and acting after that and settled in Irland to become a doctor. She is still there. Nothing significant came from the film industry this year except people enoticed Sharmila Tagor as an actress.


It was exactly what doctor had prescribed for India that time. ManojKumar’s Upkaar uplifted the lost faith of people in their own country. While the world was expressing that Indian democracy is disintegrating this movie moved the entire nation. Mere Desh ki dharati is still sung during national days in schools. Pran a villain, first time appeared out of his evils as a handicapped soldier Mangal Baba.


mere samne walli khidki mein ek chand ka tukda rehta hai……..

Meri pyari bindu……

The next generation of S.D. Burman had started its rule over the industry with the slapstick comedy featuring Kishor Kumar and Sunil Dutt fishing for the neighbour Saira Banu. All the songs in this film were superhit. Besides Mehmoods comedy once again proved him to be the king of comedy.

I heard a song on Vividhbharati two years back ‘wo shaam kuch ajeeb thi…’ the haunting melody remained in my minds for a long time and is still there in my ipod. When I got to see the movie I felt that one of the finest movies ever made. It was totally an art movie where a nurse played by Wahida Rehman treats mentally ill Rajesh Khanna. While he gets cured because of her effort she falls in love with her gets insane. Directed by Asit Sen the movie is still one of my favs.

The next decade as it appeared in beginning truly belonged to one star. Rajesh Khanna. Though there were stars of great caliber none of them matched him in box office performance. But in middle of the decade Amitabh appeared from nowhere to beat every one. Kishor Kumar got established as voice for Rajesh Khanna. Kati Patang was one of the first movies I had ever seen at late nights. With my mother, father and two neighbors I saw thing tear jerker in 1995 on Doordarshan a Friday night. This was the first blockbuster in 1971.

After 1973 came Bobby. A teenage love story that truly brought skinny movies. 17 year old Dimple in Bikini wouldn’t have got any film flop and when the cuteness of Hrishi Kapoor got added to it was just just too hit.It ran for years in several movie halls.

The next year also saw Shyam Benegal emerging as a leader of Art cinema in India. Actor and actresses like Nasiruddin Shah, Om Puri, Shabana Azmi, Sachin, Amol Palekar all were given break by him. Ankur was his first masterpiece which came in 1974.


And on the box office till now…………………….



Raw net

Inflation adjusted






Hum Apke Hai Kown




Mother India




Mughal E azam




Muqqadar ka Sikander








Dilwale Dulhnia…




Dhoom 2








Amar Akbar Anthony
















Raja Hindustani




Dharam Veer



· source: Business Today (

· all figures in crores inclusive of revenues of audio rights but not television

· But guess the most hit INDIAN film? Its Sivaji The boss, with revenues of 350 crores just from print sell. This Rajani starrer beats all the hindi movies ever made.

Any year in the history of Indian films can be forgotten but not 1975. This was the year on one movie that occupied theaters for even next year. Sholay was undisputably the biggest blockbuster in Hindi films. The most famous dialogs like ‘Kitney Admi they…?“ye haat nahin faasi ka fanda hai…”, “ye hat muze dede thakur,..” and which not. Every line in this movie was remembered. Every character even a 3 minute role by Sachin or Jagdeep was made memorable. Powerful performance from the entire cast, great music, superb dialogs made this one of the longest films the only hit from Ramesh Sippy. I need not say more you know it all. There won’t be a single film viewer who has not seen this film, not once but at least thrice and each time the pleasure is same.

1976; the dark era of Indira Gandhi’s misplaced self importance. She forced emergency on the entire nation and arrested every opponent of her and congress. 153 journalists were held. Movies were as scare as a Test cricket victory. But the 1977 year saw a new government for the first time in India at the same time the film industry learnt that even low budget films can make decent money if they have good script. “Shatranj Ke Khiladi” by Satyajit Ray was a simple comedy based on Premchands novel. Like all his literature this story too mocked the apathy of upper class in the conservative city of Lucknow. It had Shabana Azmi, Seed Jafrey, Amjad khan and Sanjeev kapoor in lead role.

1978 was the year when for the first time in mainstream cinema an actress showed her tits. And it is anybodies guess that it was superhit. Zinat Aman in “Satyam Shivam Sundaram” was Raj Kapoors find and was purposely casted in such a bold role.

Kaala Pathar was an out of the box movie which not only featured finest actors at that time but managed to put a soft focus on hard facts. It was

Sinha in Kala PattharYash chopra’s 4th movie with Amitabh. Fine performances from Shatrughna Sinha and Shashi Kapoor made it a classic. 1979

Naseeruddin shah, Om Puri Sunita Patil and Amrish Puri. The film that baosts to have this kind of cast and a true story has to be a classic. It was the beginning of 80s and this filmed help Govind Nihlani to establish himself as no nonsense director. Movie was Akrosh written by Vijay Tendulkar. The movie did not stir the box office however but everyone noticed the performances.

1982 return of the Gandhi. This time though in the form of Richard Attenborough’s Ganhi. Played by Ben Kingsley who actually gave up smoking and non veg just to give justice to his role became a hit all world over. It won <6> academy awards and entry in Guinese Book of Records for having most number of Extra’s that time. 3,00,000 extras were used in the film. The dedication line said

“No man’s life can be encompassed in one telling….What can be done is to try to be faithful in spirit and find one’s way to the heart of the man.”

1983 was the year of world cup no producer managed to make money this year but the television interviews with Kapil and his team made more money even in those days.

I was born 1986 and I the first hindi movie I ever saw was Aakhein starring Govinda and Chanki Pande. Amitabh ruled the celluloid in the decade of 80 and no one could outshine him. Not even Rajesh Khanna. It certainly debatable but critics do believe that Rajesh Khanna outshined him in Anand where he played a cancer patient and Amitabh was his friend. I do not agree but critics say that the film somewhere wanted to touch a man to man relationship but the director did not have the courage to show it openly. Hence Amitabh and Khanna remained just friends. 1987 saw former Osho Rajnish deciple Vinod Khanna making a rock solid comeback with Insaaf and Satyamev Jayate.

But to some up, 80s was the decade of the rise of idiot box. But it was not so idiotic that times. Ramayan and Mahabharat started in 1987 and ended around 1988-89. They were so popular that the roads even in Mumbai use to go blank from 10 to 11 on Sundays. 90% of televisions in the country saw the serials irrespective of religion. Nitish Bharadvaj became the face of Lord Krishna all over. He got so popular as Krishna that people actually ran to him to seek his blessings. It had 80 million viewer more than any television serial in India. I still remember that we too had brought a t.v set in 87 and the entire locality use to come to our house to watch the epics on screen. I liked Arjun a lot and troubled my father to get me dress like him. While every cute kid in the country was busy participating in fancy dress as Krishna I simply refused to do so. I wanted to be Arjun and that was the end of the story. Me my mother, father and a neighbor tried to prepare that silver color dress Arjun use to wear but it did not get along with my taste and no fancy dress competition saw me on stage.

One after another, Hum Log, wagale ki Dunia, Buniyaad, Yeh hai jindagi, Mitti ke rang, Neem Ka Ped…. I perhaps did not appreciate them that well that time. But the acting, screenplay, stories were true to the Indian culture and honest to the social spheres. There were finest actors that made those serials immortal. Today the idiot box shows only idiots shedding tears using glycerin.

But there was change happening this time in India. The government had lost control over almost everything. From economy to law and order. This brought lots of attention to India from external world. The film industry also came under the radar of people abroad. Mira Nayar a budding director from U.K. made a film “Salam Bombay” the film was totally unusual as it did not boast a welkown artists but still won Golden Camera award in Cannes. It had 24 handpicked street children who were specially trained to work in the film. It was the second Indian film to be nominated for Oscars. 1989

The middle class in India was until than engrossed in angry young man movies and middle class t.v serials was slowly evolving. We had many foreign companies entering. They also brought the marketing strategies. The middle class now became truly opportunist and started exploring things that it until than had kept at bay. Extra maritial affairs and sexual relationships were now talked about more freely. Dimple Kapadia and Shekhar Kapoor acted in Drishti a shekhar Kapoor film that focused on EM affairs was an honest attempt but more than that the Indian viewer showed the maturity to understand it.


1992 was the year that saw rise of one impeccable talent called A. R. Rehman. He just changed the definition of music in films through the tracks like Roja which are still remembered by people. The movie was a classic made by Steven Speilberg of India Maniratnam. Each of its frame was crafted carefully and rehmans music only added value to it.


Then come the contravortial ‘bombay’ based on hindu boy loving a muslim girl on the back drop of Bombay riots. Again Rehman’s Kehana hi kya,… tu hi re etc etc topped the charts for months.



Amitabh was in hibernation and we saw some fine actors coming in front who showed the capacity to replace him. 1993 we had Sanjay Dutt in Khalnayak which had that infamous song in it “Choli ke piche kya hai?” hey guys wait Choli ke piche dil hai. Dirty minds! The hindi film industry was now identified as Bollywood and the Bollywood Bosses were in love with underworld and terrorism. May it be Roja or Khalnayak the Bollywood had found a subject that still is a very fascinating one.



Amir Khan, Shahrukh Khan and Salman Khan were the three khans that ruled the industry while madhuri enjoyed the status which only Madhubala had managed to achieve till than.

Anil Kapoor, Jacky Shrawf were also the big names in their own way. 1995 I was in 5th standard when I saw the movie Rangeela. I super duper hit movie largely credited to the performance of Urmila Mantodkar, she started off as a find of Ram Gopal Verma nad had just too many movies with him until the jodi broke up in 2000. Rangeela was an instant hit and it re-established the old fact that A R Rehman is generations a head of his peers in music composing.


1996 was very important in my life. Because of many reasons. I sawfirst cricket match in my life. For the first time I saw a movie on VCR and I saw what is cable television. I saw Wo Kaun Thi on VCR and other movies on Friday night on DD. Movies like Burning Train, Hum Dono, Prem Pujari, Guide, Kati Patang etc etc. It helped me to grow emotionally and made me sensitive. I was young to understand the movies but they did make an impact on me.

Bollywoods love with underworld did not end even after gabgstured fired 38 bullets inside Gulshan Kumar’s body. Infact it increased. Ram Gopal Verma appeared as a talent finder with Manoj Vajpeyi in Satya the movie is regarded as the best movie he ever made while Bhiku Mhatre played by Manoj is probably one of the best roles ever we have seen. Salman Khan hearthrobe of many young girls started his image as the bad boy of the industry. Charged for killing Black Bucks in Rajastan he is still appearing in courts for trials.

Then came the era where Shahrukh emerged as an replacement for Big B. Kuch Kuch Hota Hai, Dilwale Dulhania Le jayenge, Karan Arjun, One after another. He got popularity which was comparable to that enjoyed by Pop Singers in US. He was more popular abroad than in India. People had started talking that he is an replacement for Big B.


Amitabh though planed to hit back with movies like Lal Badshah. I don’t think he remembers that he acted in a movie like that. He wouldn’t like to get reminded either. His ABCL corp. was doomed to bankruptcy within few years of its inception.


Then in 2001 he got a TV serial that took him to the same heights once he stood upon. It is still unreachable for Shahrukh or any one. Amitabh perhaps the most loved and most admirer person in the industry at present. Even at 65+ age he is acting. And acting well.


Year 1999 was remembered for one more reason. For the movie Kaho Na Pyaar hai. In Hritik Roshan we found Bollywoods Tom Cruise. His chiseled biceps, Macho looks melted hearts of millions of teenager girls across the sub continent. His struck it so hard that even Shahrukh felt a need to join Gym to stay in business. From Coke to Honda every one was after him for Advertisements. The movie was directed by his own father Rakesh Roshan and music was composed by Rajesh Roshan. Amisha Patel featured as an actress in it. A masala movie got popular only because of Hritik and the beautiful tracks.


Amitabh’s son too was struggling to make comeback. His first movie Refugee was hyped a lot and in my opinion was really a good one. But some how Abhishek had to wait for a long long time to get his first hit in 2004 in the form of Yuva and Dhoom. Yuva got him awards for acting as well. In between he came and went in so many forgettable movies. Abhishek and Hritik both entered Bollywood at the same time and were compared to each other. Abhishek seemed nowhere when compared to Hritik. Both on screen as well as off screen. But Abhishek remained humble and down to earth only improving each time. Today he is heart throb of all the young ladies. His acting too in Guru and other movies has proved that he indeed has inherited all the acting gene from both his parents. I wish he was as terrific dancer as Hritik.

In year 2002 Amir Khan’s Lagan and Sunny Deol’s Gadar. These two movies did not allow any other movies to be talked about. Lagaan even got nominated for Academy awards but lost it to ‘No Mens’ Land’. A. R. Rehman’s score for Lagaan is remembered still while Gadar became on of the most Hit cenema in the history. It also marked return of sunny deol as well as Amisha Patel. The on screen chemistry did not look unappealing even though they had age difference of more that 15 years.

I wish to end this 12 page monolog here as I don’t think any of my readers will patience to read the entire stuff. Please do not think that I have researched so much. In fact I wanted to but I could not give justice to it. I took help from many magazines such as two anniversary issues of India today. Lokprabha and Chitralekha. and a few forums.


One film lover from Panaji helped her by telling me the stories of various movies that I had not seen. She had literally seen every movie mentioned here. I also apologise that I simply ignored some big names here the way they needed the mention. Like Lata Mangeshkar, I will devote a full blog to her later. Madan Mohan RD Burman, Asha Bhosale I have ignored akmost all of them because they need more special mention. Some of the finest directors like Sudhndra Mishra, Amol Palekar, Shyam Benegal should have obtained more space. Many movies like Janjeer, Sita aur Geeta, Dur, Utsav were on back of my mind but did not come on paper.


I suppose I took a weight that my shoulders could not carry so please forgive me if you are not satisfied with my account. Please feel free to comment either +ve or –ve. Both will be highly appreciated.

29 thoughts on “Young at At 60: The rise of Indian Film industry

  1. arre baap re!!!
    do u really posted this
    can’t believe
    my fingers r acing from scrolling 😉
    anyways, the enthu u hav for movies shows
    just needs a bit of polish,
    so keep it up, bhai
    and like ur shayari, we may see refined prose coming next
    best of luck

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